Glossary

Accessibility - The degree to which the numbers of people have access to a location, facility, program, open space, and cycle and walk networks.

Active frontage - Building frontage which contains uses that promote activity on the street.

Active living - A way of life that integrates physical activity into daily routines.

Active public open space – See Public Open Space design feature

Active transport - Is walking, cycling or using public transport. Active transport is an alternative to car travel and can provide benefits, such as increasing daily physical activity and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Ancillary benefits can also include an increase in the sense of community and improved mental health. Terms often used interchangeably to refer to walking for transport.

Activity centres otherwise referred to as (town) Centres - are community focal points. See Destinations. They include activities such as commercial, retail, higher density housing, entertainment, tourism, civic/community, higher education, and medical services. Activity centres vary in size and diversity and are designed to be well-serviced by public transport.

Activity generators - Features and land uses that attract people, activity and surveillance opportunities, such as picnic areas, cafes, recreation facilities and public seating areas.

Body Mass Index - An individual’s weight in kilograms divided by their height in metres squared. The measurement is used to identify nutritional status, weight and risk of disease.

Brownfield - Refers to land that has previously been developed but is abandoned or underused, usually considered as a potential site for redevelopment. It may or may not be environmentally contaminated but invariably will require remediation work to be undertaken to bring it back into use.

Built environment - Means The structures and places in which we live, work and play, including land uses, transportation systems and design features.

Cardiovascular disease - Refers to diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels. The most common and serious cardiovascular diseases in Australia are coronary heart disease, stroke and heart failure. They disproportionately affect males, the elderly, Indigenous Australians, and people living in remote or socioeconomically disadvantaged areas.

Co-location - The placement of several destinations or land uses in a single location or area.

Community infrastructure - is defined as: “the structures and facilities that help communities and neighbourhoods to function effectively, including sporting and recreational facilities, community centres, child care and after school centres and libraries and cultural facilities”.

Community purpose site - is a land parcel (normally less than 2000m2) set aside for local community uses such as community centres, meeting halls, libraries and kindergarten which may form part of the public open space contribution for a neighbourhood.

Conducive environments - Physical characteristics that support and enable physical activity e.g. environments conducive to walking or cycling etc.

Connectivity - The degree to which networks such as streets, railways, walking and cycling routes, services and infrastructure, interconnect. A highly connected place will have many public spaces or routes linked to it.

Crime Prevention Through Design (CPTED) - Is a multi-disciplinary approach to deterring criminal behaviour through environmental and urban design decisions. CPTED strategies rely upon the ability to influence offender decisions that precede criminal acts and deter criminal acts. Crime prevention through environmental design recognises that it has to be part of a holistic approach to crime prevention including community, social and environmental strategies.

Design guidelines - A set of planning provisions intended to guide development toward a desired level of quality through the design of the physical environment.

Development contributions - are monetary contributions made by a developer/subdivider for items of infrastructure that are required to support the orderly development of an area. This includes the standard requirements for infrastructure contributions as outlined in Appendix 1 of WAPC State Planning Policy 3.6 (SPP 3.6) Development Contributions for Infrastructure. In addition, local government can seek contributions for the capital costs of community infrastructure, which is defined as: ’the structures and facilities which help communities and neighbourhoods to function effectively, including:

  • sporting and recreational facilities;
  • community centres;
  • child care and after school centres;
  • libraries and cultural facilities; and
  • such other services and facilities for which development contributions may reasonably be requested having regard to the objectives, scope and provisions

Dwelling - A building or portion of a building being used, adapted, or designed or intended to be used for the purpose of human habitation on a permanent basis

Farmers’ markets - Farmers’ markets are regular markets that involve farmers selling fresh produce in key community locations, directly to customers. Farmers’ markets can operate in community facilities such as school grounds or public ovals.

Food freight - Food transport includes food distribution, with key influencers including transport systems, regulation and taxation.

Food hubs - Food hubs are facilities that purchase, store, distribute and market locally produced food. 

Food retail outlets - Food retail outlets include supermarkets and smaller stores such as delicatessens. ‘Healthy’ retail outlets vary in their definition, however, a WA study defined healthy food outlets as “supermarkets, general stores, fruit and vegetable stores, and butchers, as these premises provide significant options for the purchase of healthy food” 

Green infrastructure - A network of green spaces, street trees and other urban vegetation including wetlands, rain gardens, green walls and roofs - a combination of public spaces and private spaces (e.g. golf courses and residential gardens).

Greenfield Development - Development on land that has not been previously developed for urban development.

Grouped dwelling - A dwelling that is one of a group of two or more dwellings on the same lot such that no dwelling is placed wholly or partly vertically above another, except where special conditions of landscape or topography dictate otherwise, and includes a dwelling on a survey strata with common property.

Health - Is a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

Healthy communities - Are communities where people come together to make their community better for everyone through collaboration, community ownership, inclusive approaches and long-term, positive commitment. A healthy community will; provide affordable, appropriate, accessible housing, adjust the physical environment for inclusiveness and accessibility, ensure access to key health and supportive services, ensure accessible, affordable, reliable and safe transport, provide work, volunteer and education opportunities, and encourage participation in civic, cultural, social and recreational activities.

Healthy Food - ‘Healthy foods’ are those contained within the five food groups promoted by the Australian Dietary Guidelines. These include grain (cereal) foods; vegetables of various types and colours, as well as legumes and beans; fruit; lean meats, poultry and fish, nuts and tofu; and reduced fat dairy foods including milk, yoghurt, cheese and their alternatives.

Incidental activity - Unstructured activity, such as walking for transport, housework, and the performance of activities of daily living.

Land use - Land that has been zoned for specific purposes, these include residential, retail, commercial, civic, open space, or mixed-use within a town planning scheme.

Legibility - where the design of the urban form, including the local street and public open space networks provides a sense of direction and connection, giving clear signals regarding the spatial layout and geography of an area.

Local structure plan - A local structure plan is a statutory document prepared by local government, a landowner, landowner representative and approved under the provisions of a local planning scheme. Local structure plans coordinate the provision and planning for land use development, infrastructure and facilities on the neighbourhood scale (generally two suburbs or less, three neighbourhoods or less, one primary school catchment) and provide a statutory planning framework to facilitate future subdivision and development.

Local vernacular - A building style using local materials and traditional methods of construction and ornament, especially as distinguished from academic or historical architectural styles not from the region

Master plan -

  • A document that sets out how a particular area can (as opposed to will) develop and redevelop into the future
  • A high level plan intended to set out objectives and strategies to manage development and change over time
  • A process that defines what is important about a place and how its character and quality can be conserved, improved and enhanced • It isn’t a detailed design

Mixed-use - The existence of a variety of different land uses (or destinations) within a project area, precinct, locality or site.

Mixed-use development - Buildings that contain commercial and other non-residential uses in conjunction with residential dwellings in a multiple dwelling configuration.

Moderate-intensity exercise - Exercise that increases heart rate and breathing rate.

Nature Spaces - Provide a setting where people can enjoy nearby nature and protect local biodiversity and natural area values. Nature spaces provide opportunity for low-impact recreational activities, such as walking, cycling, picnicking, playing, watching or exploring natural features. Nature spaces may include bushland, coastal areas, wetlands and riparian habitats, and geological and natural features. Sites are managed to enable recreational access while protecting local ecological and biodiversity values.

Neighbourhood - is typically defined by a 5 minute walk (or 400metres) from a centrally located local centre to its perimeter. The centre will have a community focus (a destination) with a comparable mix of uses, including retail which provide for daily needs, located at intersection of relatively busy local streets and served by public transport, characterised by a range of residential densities and variety of housing types that increased toward the neighbourhood centre.

Neighbourhood aesthetics - Neighbourhood aesthetics relates to the general appeal and presentation of the neighbourhood and whether it provides a pleasant pedestrian-orientated environment. Design features that contribute towards the physical qualities and aesthetics of the street environment and that are relevant to walking include: the surface type and condition of footpaths; curb heights; the provision of street furniture, lighting and trees; vegetation; building setbacks; as well as the attractiveness of the area, and its maintenance.

Neighbourhood open space (NOS) - See Public Open Space design feature

Neighbourhood permeability - relates to using street block lengths of not more than 240m, and predominately around 15-180 m in length. Street blocks should generally be shorter closer to the town and neighbourhoods centres. The choice of movement should be maximised, with streets and footpaths designed to assist in safe movements.

Non-communicable diseases - A non-infectious chronic health condition, usually developing over a significant period of time, that can cause death, dysfunction or impaired quality of life.

Passive building design - See Buildings design feature

Passive public open space – See Public Open Space design feature

Ped – sheds, sometimes referred to as ‘walkable catchments’ - are maps showing the actual area in a 5 minute walking distance from any centre, or 10 minutes from any major transport stop such as a railway station. The centre could be a neighbourhood or town centre. The walkable catchment is simply a technique for comparative evaluation of how easy it is to move through an urban area, in order to get to and from these centres or facilities. These maps are the best estimates of walkability, and as such are an indication of energy efficiency.

Physical education - The teaching of skills necessary to perform a variety of physical activities, maintain fitness and make decisions about engaging in physical activity as part of a healthy active lifestyle.

Place manager - coordinates activity and acts as a point of responsibility and accountability for the outcomes in the centre and/or destination. A place manager’s role includes both place coordination and entrepreneurship. These roles include broad based activities from defining outcomes for a place, brokerage and facilitation with a big picture focus, budget control and allocation, management of services delivered to a place to holistic planning for a place. They are expected to work with multidisciplinary teams within the responsible authority/organisation as well as other agencies and industry to ensure a coordinated holistic approach to urban development, management and implementation. 

Public open space hierarchy - Is a notional framework for the provision of public open space parkland which is dependent upon the scale, function and location which varies in size, ratio of active versus passive components and potential number of dwelling within its service catchment. Refer to Public Open Space design feature.

Public realm - Areas of common public use, in local authority or State Crown ownership, such as parks, playgrounds and streets.

Quality of life - Ability to enjoy normal life activities.

Recreation - An activity of leisure for free time often done for enjoyment and can be considered healthy, fun and social.

Recreation spaces - Provides a setting for informal play and physical activity, relaxation and social interaction. Recreation spaces include gardens and open parklands, community gardens, corridor links, amenity spaces, community use facilities, civic commons or squares.

Risk factor - Something can increase a person’s chances of developing a disease.

Sedentary behaviour - Time spent doing physically inactive tasks that do not require a lot of energy. Sedentary behaviour refers to any waking activity characterised by energy expenditure ≤ 1.5 metabolic equivalents and a sitting or reclining posture. In general, this means that any time a person is sitting or lying down, they are engaging in sedentary behaviour. Common sedentary behaviours include screen use, driving and reading.

Sense of community - A feeling that members have of belonging and being important to each other and a shared faith that members’ needs will be met by the commitment to be together”.

Serviced apartment - A residential dwelling that forms part of a complex where common maintenance or other serviced are provided.

Single bedroom dwelling - A dwelling that contains a living room and no more than one other habitable room that is capable of use as a bedroom.

Single house - A dwelling standing wholly on its own green title or survey title lot, together with any easement over adjoining land for support of a wall or for access or services and excludes dwellings on titles with areas held in common property.

Site responsive - A design for a building that takes the location, natural landscape and climate into consideration when designing the optimal design

Social capital - The social networks and interactions that inspire trust and reciprocity among citizens.

Social cohesion (also referred to as sense of belonging) - Refers to the degree to which people in a community feel connected and committed to and part of a community.

Social inclusion - Refers to a society where all people are given the opportunity to participate fully in political, cultural, civic and economic life because they feel valued, their differences are respected, and their basic needs are met so they can live in dignity.

Strength / resistance training - Any physical activity or exercise that uses the force of a muscle against some form of resistance to build muscle strength, endurance, and size.

Structure plan - means a plan for the coordination of future subdivision, development and zoning of an area of land and maybe prepared if: the area is: all or part of a zone identified in this Scheme as an area suitable for urban or industrial development; and identified in this Scheme as an area requiring a structure plan to be prepared before any future subdivision or development is undertaken; or a State planning policy requires a structure plan to be prepared for the area; or when the responsible authority considers that a structure plan for the area is required for the purposes of orderly and proper planning.

Surveillance - The ability to see and hear activities

Transit Orientated Development - The creation of compact, walkable communities centred around high quality public transport.

Urban agriculture - Urban agriculture has been defined as “the practice of cultivating, processing, and distributing food in or around (peri-urban) a village, town, or city” 

Urban design - A design based approach to shaping urban environments and optimising the performance and efficiency of neighbourhoods, towns and cities, paying particular attention to the way urban spaces work, interface between public and private realms and natural environment, cultural values, integrated movement systems and built form.

Urban orchards - Urban orchards involve the growing and sharing of food by a local community within an urban municipality.

Verge side gardens - Verge gardens include food production on nature strips and are often maintained by local residents.

Vigorous intensity - Exercise that substantially increases heart rate and breathing, and is likely to cause sweating.

Visibility - The ability of users of a space to see and be seen, ensuring surveillance by the maximum number of people.

Walkability - Is the measure of the overall walking conditions in an area. A place is walkable when it has characteristics that invite people to walk. See Ped-shed and walkability in Destinations design feature

Walkability index - See Ped-shed and walkable catchment in Destinations design feature